Dec 31 2011

Facebook Debit Card for White Hat Hackers

Facebook Debit CardA few companies pay money to bug hunters. But Facebook is giving out something more unique than just a check.

Some security researchers are getting a customized “White Hat Bug Bounty Program” Visa debit card.

The researchers, who can make thousands of dollars for reporting just one security hole on the social-networking site, can use the card to make purchases, just like a credit card, or create a PIN and take money out of an ATM. As the researchers find more bugs, Facebook can add more money to their accounts.

Facebook wanted to do something special for the people who are helping the company shore up its software and keep hackers and malware out.

“Researchers who find bugs and security improvements are rare, and we value them and have to find ways to reward them,” Ryan McGeehan, manager of Facebook’s security.

Besides holding cash value, the White Hat card may proffer other advantages. “We might make it a pass to get into a party,” for instance, McGeehan said. “We’re trying to be creative.”

The most Facebook has paid out for one bug report is $5,000, and it has done that several times, according to McGeehan. Payments have been made to 81 researchers, he said.

Szymon Gruszecki, a Polish security researcher and penetration tester; Neal Poole, a junior at Brown University who will be an intern at Facebook next summer; Charlie Miller, a researcher at Accuvant known for finding holes in iOS 5 and Safari, praised the card. “Facebook whitehat card not as prestigious as the SVC card, but very cool ;) Fun way to implement no more free bugs,” he tweeted.

Facebook has plans to leverage the knowledge and skills of the researchers beyond just providing the bug bounty incentive.

“Whenever possible we’re going to try to load-in White Hat researchers into products early–as soon as (they are) in production,” McGeehan said. Thus Facebook “will get an early warning on anything they find.”

Dec 29 2011

Reaver – WiFi Protected Setup Brute Force Attack Tool

Reaver implements a brute force attack against Wifi Protected Setup (WPS) registrar PINs in order to recover WPA/WPA2 passphrases, as described in

Reaver has been designed to be a robust and practical attack against WPS, and has been tested against a wide variety of access points and WPS implementations.

On average Reaver will recover the target AP’s plain text WPA/WPA2 passphrase in 4-10 hours, depending on the AP. In practice, it will generally take half this time to guess the correct WPS pin and recover the passphrase.

While Reaver does not support reconfiguring the AP, this can be accomplished with wpa_supplicant once the WPS pin is known.

Reaver targets the external registrar functionality mandated by the WiFi Protected Setup specification. Access points will provide authenticated registrars with their current wireless configuration (including the WPA PSK), and also accept a new configuration from the registrar.

In order to authenticate as a registrar, the registrar must prove its knowledge of the AP’s 8-digit pin number. Registrars may authenticate themselves to an AP at any time without any user interaction. Because the WPS protocol is conducted over EAP, the registrar need only be associated with the AP and does not need any prior knowledge of the wireless encryption or configuration.

Reaver performs a brute force attack against the AP, attempting every possible combination in order to guess the AP’s 8 digit pin number. Since the pin numbers are all numeric, there are 10^8 (100,000,000) possible values for any given pin number. However, because the last digit of the pin is a checksum value which can be calculated based on the previous 7 digits, that key space is reduced to 10^7 (10,000,000) possible values.

The key space is reduced even further due to the fact that the WPS authentication protocol cuts the pin in half and validates each half individually. That means that there are 10^4 (10,000) possible values for the first half of the pin and 10^3 (1,000) possible values for the second half of the pin, with the last digit of the pin being a checksum.

Reaver brute forces the first half of the pin and then the second half of the pin, meaning that the entire key space for the WPS pin number can be exhausted in 11,000 attempts. The speed at which Reaver can test pin numbers is entirely limited by the speed at which the AP can process WPS requests. Some APs are fast enough that one pin can be tested every second; others are slower and only allow one pin every ten seconds. Statistically, it will only take half of that time in order to guess the correct pin number.

Reaver is only supported on the Linux platform, requires the libpcap and libsqlite3 libraries, and can be built and installed by running:

$ ./configure
$ make
# make install

To remove everything installed/created by Reaver:

# make distclean

Usually, the only required arguments to Reaver are the interface name and the BSSID of the target AP:

# reaver -i mon0 -b 00:01:02:03:04:05

Download: reaver-1.3.tar.gz

Reaver Home:

Dec 27 2011

WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) PIN Brute Force Vulnerability

WiFi Protected Setup
The WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) PIN is susceptible to a brute force attack. A design flaw that exists in the WPS specification for the PIN authentication significantly reduces the time required to brute force the entire PIN because it allows an attacker to know when the first half of the 8 digit PIN is correct. The lack of a proper lock out policy after a certain number of failed attempts to guess the PIN on many wireless routers makes this brute force attack that much more feasible.

WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) is a computing standard created by the WiFi Alliance to ease the setup and securing of a wireless home network. WPS contains an authentication method called “external registrar” that only requires the router’s PIN. By design this method is susceptible to brute force attacks against the PIN.

When the PIN authentication fails the access point will send an EAP-NACK message back to the client. The EAP-NACK messages are sent in a way that an attacker is able to determine if the first half of the PIN is correct. Also, the last digit of the PIN is known because it is a checksum for the PIN. This design greatly reduces the number of attempts needed to brute force the PIN. The number of attempts goes from 108 to 104 + 103 which is 11,000 attempts in total.

It has been reported that many wireless routers do not implement any kind of lock out policy for brute force attempts. This greatly reduces the time required to perform a successful brute force attack. It has also been reported that some wireless routers resulted in a denial-of-service condition because of the brute force attempt and required a reboot.

An attacker within range of the wireless access point may be able to brute force the WPS PIN and retrieve the password for the wireless network, change the configuration of the access point, or cause a denial of service.

We are currently unaware of a practical solution to this problem. Please consider the following workarounds:

Disable WPS
Within the wireless router’s configuration menu, disable the external registrar feature of WiFi Protected Setup (WPS). Depending on the vendor, this may be labeled as external registrar, router PIN, or WiFi Protected Setup.

Vendor Information:

Vendor Status Date Notified Date Updated
Belkin, Inc. Affected   2012-01-06
Buffalo Inc. Affected   2011-12-27
D-Link Systems, Inc. Affected 2011-12-05 2011-12-27
Linksys (A division of Cisco Systems) Affected 2011-12-05 2011-12-27
Netgear, Inc. Affected 2011-12-05 2011-12-27
Technicolor Affected   2012-01-06
TP-Link Affected   2011-12-27
ZyXEL Affected   2011-12-27

Stefan Viehböck

WPS Vulnerability Tesing – Google Docs

Dec 22 2011

Kaspersky Internet Security – Memory Corruption Vulnerability

Kaspersky VulnerabilityVulnerability-Lab Team discovered a Memory & Pointer Corruption Vulnerability on Kaspersky Internet Security 2011/2012 & Kaspersky Anti-Virus 2011/2012.

The vulnerability is caused by an invalid pointer corruption when processing a corrupt .cfg file through the kaspersky exception filters, which could be exploited by attackers to crash the complete software process.
The bug is located over the basegui.ppl & basegui.dll when processing a .cfg file import.

Vulnerable Modules:

Affected Version(s):
– Kaspersky Anti-Virus 2012 & Kaspersky Internet Security 2012
– KIS 2012 v12.0.0.374
– KAV 2012 v12.x

– Kaspersky Anti-Virus 2011 & Kaspersky Internet Security 2011
– KIS 2011 v11.0.0.232 (a.b)
– KIS 2011 v12.0.0.374

– Kaspersky Anti-Virus 2010 & Kaspersky Internet Security 2010


Vulnerability Research Laboratory – Benjamin K.M. (Rem0ve)

Original Advisory:

Dec 22 2011

Backdoor in Android for No-Permissions Reverse Shell

Security expert Thomas Cannon working at viaForensics as the Director of R&D has demonstrated a custom-developed app that installs a backdoor in Android smartphones – without requiring any permissions or exploiting any security holes.

Thomas built an app which requires no permissions and yet is able to give an attacker a remote shell and allow them to execute commands on the device remotely from anywhere in the world. The functionality they are exploiting to do this is not new, it has been quietly pointed out for a number of years, and was explained in depth at Defcon-18 Presentation.

It is not a zero-day exploit or a root exploit. They are using Android the way it was designed to work, but in a clever way in order to establish a 2-way communication channel. This has been tested on Android versions ranging from 1.5 up to 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich, and it works in a similar way on all platforms.

The application operates by instructing the browser to access a particular web page with specific parameters. This web page, and the server behind it, will, in turn, control the app by forwarding the browser to a URL that starts with a protocol prefix that is registered as being handled by the app, for example app://. This process can then be repeated and in doing so it enables two-way communication.

“In this demonstration Android’s power and flexibility were perhaps also its downfall. Other smartphone platforms may not offer the controls we are bypassing at all, and the multi-tasking capabilities in Android allowed us to run the attack almost transparently to the user. This power combined with the open nature of Android also facilitates the customisation of the system to meet bespoke security requirements. This is something we have even been involved in ourselves by implementing a proof of concept Loadable Kernel Module to pro-actively monitor and defend a client’s intellectual property as it passed through their devices. It is no surprise that we have seen adoption of Android research projects in the military and government as it can be enhanced and adapted for specific security requirements, perhaps like no other mobile platform before it.”Thomas Cannon said